Intervensi Orang Tua pada Anak dengan Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Kajian Literatur Sistematis

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Amalia Novianti(1Mail), Aradewi Laksmi Ayuningtyas(2), Farida Kurniawati(3),
(1) Psikologi Terapan Anak Usia Dini, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
(2) Psikologi Terapan Anak Usia Dini, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
(3) Psikologi Terapan Anak Usia Dini, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia

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Available online: 2021-07-22  |  Published : 2021-07-22
Copyright (c) 2021 Amalia Novianti, Aradewi Laksmi Ayuningtyas, Farida Kurniawati
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Abstract


Program intervensi pada anak dengan autisme yang melibatkan orang tua secara langsung sangatlah penting karena orang tua adalah lingkungan terdekat yang paling banyak menghabiskan waktunya bersama anak. Sayangnya belum banyak program intervensi autisme di Indonesia yang melibatkan orang tua secara langsung. Penelitian ini merupakan sebuah kajian literatur sistematis yang bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi contoh program intervensi autisme yang dilakukan di negara lain dengan melibatkan orang tua. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat 7 intervensi orang tua pada anak dengan autisme. Terdapat dua prinsip penting dalam penanganan anak dengan autisme yaitu keterlibatan orang tua dan penanganan sejak dini. Berdasarkan metodenya, intervensi-intervensi ini dapat dibagi menjadi: (a) Intervensi yang berupa edukasi kepada orang tua berupa training atau coaching; (b) Intervensi yang secara langsung melibatkan orang tua sebagai mediator atau facilitator; atau (c) Hybrid antara keduanya. Berdasarkan sasarannya, intervensi-intervensi ini dapat dibagi menjadi: (a) Kemampuan komunikasi anak; (b) Kemampuan sosialisasi anak; atau (c) Terapi perilaku anak

Keywords


autism spectrum disorder; anak usia dini; intervensi awal; intervensi orang tua

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